Health News


15/Oct/2019
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Microelements play pivotal roles for fungal/plant development and end-use properties. In this study, we examined the production and characterization of valuable sulfated polysaccharides (SPSs) with biological benefits from Antrodia cinnamomea and fine-tuning of mycelial culture conditions. Using various sulfated salts (e.g. CuSO4, FeSO4 and ZnSO4) to feed A. cinnamomea, we found that CuSO4 and ZnSO4 increased 25% and 20% of mycelium yields, respectively. We further isolated the SPSs from CuSO4, FeSO4 and ZnSO4-feeding of A. cinnamomea (called CuFSPS, FeFSPS and ZnFSPS, respectively) and found that CuSO4 and ZnSO4 significantly promoted SPS production. By contrast, FeSO4 did not change the yields of mycelium and SPS from A. cinnamomea. Characteristic studies have revealed that these sulfated salts did not significantly induce change in the sulfation and the sugar contents of SPS. However, the galactose and glucose contents in ZnFSPS were increased to the value of 249 and 1038 μmol/g, respectively. In addition, in regard to area percentages, while the major SPSs species were low-molecular-weight SPSs (<23 kDa), the sulfated salts increased the area percentages of molecular size in the range of 200-500 kDa. Anticancer function studies showed that those SPSs inhibit the cell viability 35-45% at 800 μg/ml of lung cancer A549 cells via downregulation of EGFR signaling. Our study is the first to identify the efficacy of microelements in the enhancement of mycelia yield and SPS, in which CuSO4 and ZnSO4 enhanced mycelia growth and increased the production of SPS. Our finding suggests that ZnSO4 may play roles in regulating the SPS assembling. Moreover, those SPSs derived from feeding A. cinnamomea with microelements may be useful as a potential agent for inhibition of lung cancer viability.


15/Oct/2019
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Antrodia cinnamomea, a medicinal mushroom, has previously demonstrated anti-inflammatory activity, although the specific compound responsible for the effect remains unclear. The present study was designed to investigate the anti-inflammatory property of antrolone, a novel benzoid derived from A. cinnamomea mycelium, and to clarify the underlying mechanisms of action. To this end, murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells were treated with antrolone (0.1-30[Formula: see text][Formula: see text]M) 30[Formula: see text]min prior to stimulation with lipopolysaccharides (LPS, 0.1[Formula: see text][Formula: see text]g/ml) for 24[Formula: see text]h. Cell viability, nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production, levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, and the signaling pathways involved in the inflammatory cascades were then investigated. Our results show that antrolone significantly decreased LPS-induced NO, PGE2, pro-inflammatory cytokine, and keratinocyte chemoattractant CXCL1 (KC) production and reduced levels of the proteins inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). These effects were independent of the effect of antrolone on macrophage cytotoxicity. Moreover, antrolone significantly inhibited the activation of the NF[Formula: see text]B, MAPK, and AKT pathways, while it increased nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor (Nrf2) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) levels. Our findings suggest that antrolone exhibits potent anti-inflammatory activity and may, therefore, be a lead compound for the development of an anti-inflammatory drug.


15/Oct/2019
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A polysaccharide (termed ACPS-1) from mycelia of Antrodia cinnamomea under submerged culture was purified by hot water extraction and successive DEAE-52 cellulose and Sephadex G-100 column chromatography, and structurally characterized by FTIR, NMR, periodate oxidation, Smith degradation, and GC-MS. ACPS-1 (MW 2.296 × 104 Da) was composed primarily of Man, Xyl, Ara, Fuc and Rha with a molar ratio of 31.27:1.77:1.44:1.34:1.00, and its backbone consisted of repeating α-(1 → 3), α-(1 → 6), α-(1 → 2), and α-(1 → 4) glycosidic linkages. ACPS-1 displayed strong in vitro growth-inhibitory effects on several human and mouse cancer cell lines (HeLa, A431, H22 and S180), and were not cytotoxic to normal mouse spleen cells. Studies of the inhibitory mechanism revealed that ACPS-1 induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest (cells remained in G2/M phase) through blocking of topoisomerase I/tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase I (TOP1/TDP1)-mediated DNA repair pathway. Our findings suggest that ACPS-1 has strong potential applications in pharmaceutical and food industries, and as a novel anticancer agent based on its dual TOP1/TDP1 inhibitory effect.


15/Oct/2019
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Antrodia cinnamomea is a polyporaceous medicinal and native fungus in Taiwan. In this study, we found that AC-SPS-F3, a sulfated glucan from A. cinnamomea, reduced lung cancer cell viability via inhibition of EGFR and mTOR activity. The co-administration of AC-SPS-F3 and cisplatin synergistically inhibited lung cancer cell viability. We identified AC-SPS-F3 was a sulfated β-(1→4)-d-glucan with two long 1,6-branches in each repeat unit. The FT-IR absorption at 1341 cm-1 and 887 cm-1 confirmed the existence of sulfates. The proposed repeat unit of AC-SPS-F3, including the types of main skeleton and side chains, as well as the position of the minor galactopyranosyl and mannopyranosyl residues, were proposed according to the 1D and 2D NMR spectra, shown as follows: The features for the proposed repeat unit of AC-SPS-F3 included two long β-(1→6)-Glcp branches, a very high ratio of sulfate substitution, and partial 2-O and 4-O substituents evenly distributed on the β-(1→6)-Glcp branches. The present study is first to characterize the highly branched sulfated polysaccharides and elucidates its anti-cancer functions.


15/Oct/2019
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Carbon and nitrogen sources in culture medium of Antrodia cinnamomea were optimized to eliminate the interference of exterior macromolecules on exopolysaccharide (EPS) yield by submerged fermentation. The results suggested that culture medium containing 50 g/L of glucose and 20 g/L of yeast extract as the optimal carbon and nitrogen sources could produce 1.03 g/L of exopolysaccharides. After purification, two heteropolysaccharides (AC-EPS1 and AC-EPS2) were obtained and characterized to provide the basic structure information. As the main component of the produced EPS, AC-EPS2 (accounting for 89.63%) was mainly composed of galactose (87.42%) with Mw (molecular weight) and R.M.S. (root-mean-square) radius of 1.18 × 105 g/mol and 25.3 nm, respectively. Furthermore, the spherical and flexible chain morphologies of EPS were observed in different solvents by TEM. The structural and morphological information of purified EPS were significant for further study on their structure-activity relationship and related applications.


15/Oct/2019
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To enhance production of Antrodia cinnamomea triterpenoids (ACTs) from mycelia in solid-state culture, α-terpineol was added to the medium as an elicitor at an optimal concentration of 0.05 mL L-1. Multi-stage solvent extraction and HPLC analysis were performed, and the compositions of ACTs-E (from culture with elicitor) and ACTs-NE (from culture without elicitor) were found to be quite different. In assays of in vitro antitumor activity, ACTs-E, in comparison with ACTs-NE, produced stronger viability reduction in several tumor cell lines and stronger apoptosis induction in HeLa in a dose-dependent manner. Several related proteins involved in the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis (p53, Bax, caspase-3) did not show expression upregulation by ACTs-E, suggesting that apoptosis induction occurred through a p53-independent process. Further analysis revealed that ACTs-E strongly inhibited synthesis of topoisomerase I (TOP1) and tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase I (TDP1), which are involved in DNA repair, at both transcriptional and protein levels. Our findings suggest that ACTs-E have potential for applications in the pharmaceutical, clinical, and functional food industries, as a novel antitumor agent and a dual TOP1/TDP1 inhibitor.


15/Oct/2019
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The functions of 4-acetylantroquinonol B (4-AAQB), a ubiquinone derivative isolated from the mycelium of Antrodia cinnamomea, in immunotherapy for liver cancer were investigated. We found that 4-AAQB could inhibit liver cancer stem cell related manifestations and activate the antitumor ability of dendritic cells. Specifically, 4-AAQB can inhibit EpCAM, AFP and related pathways of HepG2 cells. It also significantly decreases the expression of β-catenin, inhibits the tumorigenicity and decreases the secretion of immune escape related cytokines. Moreover, 4-AAQB can stimulate the proliferation of immune cells and promote the endocytosis of immature dendritic cells. When co-cultured immature dendritic cells with EpCAM+ HepG2 cells, 4-AAQB enhanced the expression of MHC class I and II on the surface of liver cancer stem cells and dendritic cells, increased the expression of costimulatory molecules CD80 of dendritic cells and cytokines related to immune activation. In conclusion, 4-AAQB from Antrodia cinnamomea can enhance immune function of dendritic cells against liver cancer stem cells, and may have the potential to be used for liver cancer prevention and immunotherapy.


15/Oct/2019
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Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) is a nuclear hormone receptor that transcriptionally regulates lipid metabolism and inflammation; therefore, PPARα agonists are promising agents to treat dyslipidemia and metabolic disorders. PPARα full agonists, such as fibrates, are effective anti-hypertriglyceride agents, but their use is limited by adverse side effects. Hence, the aim of this study was to identify small molecules that can activate PPARα while minimizing the adverse effects. Antrodia cinnamomea, a rare medical mushroom, has been used widely in Asian countries for the treatment of various diseases, including liver diseases. Antcin B, H and K (antcins) and ergostatrien-3β-ol (EK100) are bioactive compounds isolated from A. cinnamomea with anti-inflammatory actions. Antcins, ergostane-type triterpenoids, contain the polar head with carboxylate group and the sterol-based body. Here, we showed at the first time that sterol-based compounds, antcins, but not EK100, activate PPARα in a cell-based transactivation study. The in silico docking studies presented several significant molecular interactions of antcins, including Tyr314, and His440 in the ligand-binding domain of PPARα, and these interactions are required for helix 12 (H12) stabilization. We propose that PPARα activation activity of antcins is related to their binding mode which requires conventional H12 stabilization, and that antcins can be developed as safe selective PPARα modulators.


15/Oct/2019
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Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection is associated with B cell lymphomas in humans. The latent membrane protein 1 (LMP-1) of EBV constitutively activates the JAK/STAT signaling pathway and contributes to the proliferation of EBV-infected primary human B lymphocytes. Thus, targeting LMP1-induced JAK/STAT signaling may prove effective in treating B-cell lymphomas. The extract of the fruiting body of Antrodia cinnamomea, has been reported to have cytotoxicity on blood cancer cells. Here, we report that the bioactivity of antcin H, an analog of the JAK2 inhibitor zhankuic acid A (ZAA), inhibits LMP1-induced JAK/STAT related signaling and induces lymphoma cell line apoptosis. Moreover, antcin H enhances low-dose methotrexate (MTX) cytotoxicity against lymphoma cells. Treatment of antcin H with low-dose MTX significantly suppressed tumor growth and prolonged the survival of tumor-bearing mice. Our findings indicate antcin H as a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of EBV-infected cancer cells.


15/Oct/2019
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Taiwanofungus camphoratus is a unique medicinal mushroom endemic to Taiwan, and it is used as a folk medicine in East Asian countries. The aim of the present study was to investigate the immunomodulatory effects of “leader Antrodia cinnamomea capsule” (LAC), a health food product containing solid-state cultivated mycelial powder of T. camphoratus. For the in vivo studies, mice were orally administered LAC (76, 250, and 760 mg/kg b.w.) for 30 days, and its effects on cell-mediated humoral immune function were examined. The results of the concanavalin A-induced splenic lymphocyte proliferation test showed that LAC significantly increased splenic lymphocyte proliferation compared with the control. In addition, serum hemolysin analysis showed that LAC treatment significantly increased the half value of serum hemolysin (HC50) in mice compared with the control. Moreover, treatment with LAC significantly increased the phagocytic index as measured by carbon clearance and natural killer cell activity. Taken together, these findings provide strong evidence that LAC can modulate immune function.


15/Oct/2019
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Radiotherapy is one of the most common treatment options for local or regional advanced prostate cancer (PCa). Importantly, PCa is prone to radioresistance and often develops into malignancies after long-term radiotherapy. Antrocin, a sesquiterpene lactone isolated from Antrodia cinnamomea, possesses pharmacological efficacy against various cancer types; however, its therapeutic potential requires comprehensive exploration, particularly in radioresistant PCa cells. In this study, we emphasized the effects of antrocin on radioresistant PCa cells and addressed the molecular mechanism underlying the radiosensitization induced by antrocin. Our results showed that a combination treatment with antrocin and ionizing radiation (IR) synergistically inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in radioresistant PCa cells. We further demonstrated that antrocin downregulated PI3K/AKT and MAPK signaling pathways as well as suppressed type 1 insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R)-mediated induction of β-catenin to regulate cell cycle and apoptosis. Using xenograft mouse models, we showed that antrocin effectively enhanced radiotherapy in PCa. Our study demonstrates that antrocin sensitizes PCa to radiation through constitutive suppression of IGF-1R downstream signaling, revealing that it can be developed as a potent therapeutic agent to overcome radioresistant PCa.


15/Oct/2019
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Glioblastoma (GBM), a malignant form of glioma, is characterized by resistance to therapy and poor prognosis. Accumulating evidence shows that the initiation, propagation, and recurrence of GBM is attributable to the presence of GBM stem cells (GBM-CSCs).


15/Oct/2019
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Antrodan, a unique protein-bound polysaccharide derived from the fungal mycelia of Antrodia cinnamomea, has been reported to exhibit antitumor and anti-metastatic effects on Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells through direct action and immunomodulation in vitro. In this study, we investigated the combined treatment of antrodan with an anti-cancer drug-cisplatin-and its underlying molecular mechanisms of action in a mouse xenograft tumor model. C57BL/6 mice were implanted (s.c.) with LLCs for nine days, before administration with only antrodan (20 mg/kg and 40 mg/kg; p.o.) daily, only cisplatin (1 mg/kg; i.p.) twice per week, or a combination of both for an additional 28 days. As expected, antrodan on its own significantly inhibited metastasis of lung and liver tissues, while treatment with cisplatin only merely inhibited metastasis of the liver. Antrodan exhibited efficient adjuvant therapy in combination with cisplatin, by inhibiting the activities of the plasma urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) and the liver matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9), as well as by inhibiting the phosphorylation of p38 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 (ERK2) in lung and liver tissues. In addition, antrodan effectively ameliorated cisplatin-induced kidney dysfunction when treated combinatorially, as evidenced by a decrease in cisplatin-induced blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels in plasma and in the level of p38 phosphorylation in the kidney. Mechanistically, the actions of antrodan on its own involved (i) reducing the activities of uPA and MMP-2 and -9 in plasma; (ii) reducing protein expression of MMP-2/9, and the phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), including extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs), c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs), and p38 in lung and liver tissues; and (iii) enhancing immune system functions resulting in the promotion of an anti-metastatic response through immunomodulation, by increasing interferon-γ (IFN-γ) levels and decreasing interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels in plasma. These results demonstrated that antrodan provides a novel, complementary therapeutic strategy against cancer metastasis, by attenuating the activities of MMP-2 and -9 through the modulation of STAT3/MAPK/ERK/JNK signaling pathways, and of the host’s immune system.


15/Oct/2019
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Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women and affects 1.38 million women worldwide per year. Antiestrogens such as tamoxifen, a selective estrogen receptor (ER) modulator, are widely used in clinics to treat ER-positive breast tumors. However, remissions of breast cancer are often followed by resistance to tamoxifen and disease relapse. Despite the increasing understanding of the resistance mechanisms, effective regimens for treating tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer are limited. Antrodia cinnamomea is a traditional medicinal mushroom native only to Taiwan. In this study, we aimed to examine in vitro effect of antrodia cinnamomea in the tamoxifen-resistant cancer.


15/Oct/2019
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Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has been recognized worldwide as one of the major causes of cancer death. The medicinal fungus Antrodia cinnamomea (A. cinnamomea) has been served as a functional food for liver protection. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential activity of A. cinnamomea extracts as a safe booster for the anticancer activity of sorafenib, a multi-kinase inhibitor approved for the treatment of HCC. The biologically active triterpenoids in the ethanolic extracts of A. cinnamomea (EAC) were initially identified by HPLC/LC/MS then the different extracts and sorafenib were assessed in vitro and in vivo. EAC could effectively sensitize HCC cells to low doses of sorafenib, which was perceived via the ability of the combination to repress cell viability and to induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in HCC cells. The ability of EAC to enhance sorafenib activity was mediated through targeting mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases, modulating cyclin proteins expression and inhibiting cancer cell invasion. Moreover, the proposed combination significantly suppressed ectopic tumor growth in mice with high safety margins compared to single-agent treatment. Thus, this study highlights the advantage of combining EAC with sorafenib as a potential adjuvant therapeutic strategy against HCC.


15/Oct/2019
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Antrodia cinnamomea, a well-known traditional medicine used in Taiwan, is a potent anticancer drug for colorectal cancer, but the upstream molecular mechanism of its anticancer effects remains unclear. In this study, A. cinnamomea extracts showed cytotoxicity in HCT116, HT29, SW480, Caco-2 and, Colo205 colorectal cancer cells. Whole-genome expression profiling of A. cinnamomea extracts in HCT116 cells was performed. A. cinnamomea extracts upregulated the expression of the endoplasmic reticulum stress marker CHOP and its downstream gene TRB3. Moreover, dephosphorylation of Akt and mTOR as well as autophagic cell death were observed. Gene expression and autophagic cell death were reversed by the knockdown of CHOP and TRB3. Autophagy inhibition but not apoptosis inhibition reversed A. cinnamomea-induced cell death. Finally, we demonstrated that A. cinnamomea extracts significantly suppressed HCT116 tumour growth in nude mice. Our findings suggest that autophagic cell death via the CHOP/TRB3/Akt/mTOR pathway may represent a new mechanism of anti-colorectal cancer action by A. cinnamomea. A. cinnamomea is a new CHOP activator and potential drug that can be used in colorectal cancer treatment.


15/Oct/2019
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Antrodia cinnamomea, a precious and unique medical fungus existing exclusively in Taiwan, exhibits antioxidant and immunomodulatory properties. This study was conducted to evaluate the beneficial effects of A. cinnamomea powder (ACP) and to further illuminate its underlying antioxidant and immunomodulation molecular mechanisms in broilers. The functional compounds of ACP-crude triterpenoids, crude polysaccharides, and total phenolic content-were assayed, respectively. Two-hundred-forty one-day-old broilers (Ross 308) were assigned to 4 treatment groups receiving dietary supplementation with ACP at 0, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.4% for 35 days. Each group had 4 replicate pens, with 15 birds per pen. During 1 to 21- and 22 to 35-day periods, chickens on ACP-supplemented diet demonstrated increased body weight gain, compared to those on the control diet, resulting in increased weight gain throughout the entire experimental period with an increased tendency in feed consumption yet no significant difference in FCR. Blood antioxidant potentiality, superoxide dismutase (SOD), increased in birds fed the supplemented diet at both 21 and 35 d, accompanied by higher catalase (CAT) activity at 21 days. In vivo peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and 2,2΄-Azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH) capability showed that the diminished cell viability caused by both challenge factors was improved in ACP-supplemented groups. Antioxidant genes dominated by Nrf2 genes, such as HO-1 and GCLC, were up-regulated in 35-day-old birds. Inflammatory-related genes, such as IL-1β and IL-6, ruled mainly by NF-κB, were rather down-regulated by 0.2% ACP addition at 21 and 35 days. Protein expression of Nrf2 and NF-κB in the liver supported the mRNA results, demonstrating that all ACP-supplemented groups showed significantly higher Nrf2 expression, whereas the NF-κB was inhibited. In conclusion, preferable microbial balance may putatively indicate the improvement of immunomodulatory-related capacity by ACP. Furthermore, ACP could induce the Nrf2-dependent pathway and decrease the NF-κB-dominated inflammatory signaling pathway. Antioxidant and immune capacity in terms of antioxidant enzymes and cell tolerance also was elevated by ACP. Concomitantly, body weight increasing with ACP supplementation as compared to the corresponding control group further implied the promising effects exerted by ACP.


15/Oct/2019
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The objective of this study was to determine the ameliorative effects of Antrodia cinnamomea polysaccharide (ACPS) against cyclophosphamide (CTX)-induced immunosuppression in BALB/c mice. Four weeks of oral ACPS treatment successfully improved bodyweight and organ indexes and enhanced the function of T cells and the cytotoxicity of natural killer cells. CTX administration has been shown to notably decrease immunoglobulin A, G and M, interleukin 2, 6 and 12, and interferon α and γ levels in serum and in the spleen, and ACPS abolished these effects. Furthermore, ACPS effectively increased the total antioxidant capacity by stimulating superoxidase dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase activity in serum and in the spleen and by inhibiting the increases in reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde levels. Notably, ACPS induced the activation of erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) related to down-regulating Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 expression, which leads to enhanced levels of downstream antioxidative enzymes, including heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), superoxide dismutase 2, and catalase in the spleen and thymus. Therefore, the protective effects of ACPS on CTX-induced immunosuppression in mice may be the result of a reduction in oxidative stress and involved in the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway. Our study suggests that ACPS has potential for development as an effective anti-immunosuppressive agent.


15/Oct/2019
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Bacillus subtilis ATCC (American type culture collection) 6633 was found to biotransform ganoderic acid A (GAA), which is a major lanostane triterpenoid from the medicinal fungus Ganoderma lucidum. Five glycosyltransferase family 1 (GT1) genes of this bacterium, including two uridine diphosphate-dependent glycosyltransferase (UGT) genes, BsUGT398 and BsUGT489, were cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography confirmed the two purified UGT proteins biotransform ganoderic acid A into a metabolite, while the other three purified GT1 proteins cannot biotransform GAA. The optimal enzyme activities of BsUGT398 and BsUGT489 were at pH 8.0 with 10 mM of magnesium or calcium ion. In addition, no candidates showed biotransformation activity toward antcin K, which is a major ergostane triterpenoid from the fruiting bodies of Antrodia cinnamomea. One biotransformed metabolite from each BsUGT enzyme was then isolated with preparative high-performance liquid chromatography. The isolated metabolite from each BsUGT was identified as ganoderic acid A-15-O-β-glucoside by mass and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The two BsUGTs in the present study are the first identified enzymes that catalyze the 15-O-glycosylation of triterpenoids.


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