Antrodia cinnamomea (AC), an edible fungus growing in Taiwan, has various health benefits. This study was designed to examine the potential inhibitory effects of AC oligosaccharides on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory responses in vitro and in vivo. By trifluoroacetic acid degradation, two oligosaccharide products were prepared from AC polysaccharides at 90 °C (ACHO) or 25 °C (ACCO), which showed different oligosaccharide identities. Compared to ACCO, ACHO displayed better inhibitory effects on LPS-induced mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines including IL-6, IL-8, IL-1β, TNF-α and MCP-1 in macrophage cells. Further, ACHO significantly suppressed the inflammation in lung tissues of LPS-injected C57BL/6 mice. The potential anti-inflammatory molecular mechanism may be associated with the promotion of protein O-GlcNAcylation, which further skewed toward the marked suppression of p38 and Akt phosphorylation. Our results suggest that the suppressive effect of AC oligosaccharides on inflammation may be an effective approach for the prevention of inflammation-related diseases.